What are the main and factual land claims of Armenians over Karabakh?

What are the main and factual land claims of Armenians over Karabakh?

Until 1918, there were no states of Armenians in the Caucasus, the Middle East

The great powers skillfully used the 'Armenian card' against the Ottoman Empire. All historical facts prove that Nagorno-Karabakh was the territory of Azerbaijan. The settlement of Armenians in the South Caucasus, including Nagorno-Karabakh, began in the early 19th century in accordance with Russia's strategic plan. Although a plan to resettle Armenians in the South Caucasus was prepared during the reign of Peter I, it was not possible to fully implement it at that time. Favorable conditions for the implementation of this plan appeared in the early nineteenth century. As a result of the first and second Russo-Iranian wars of 1804-1813 and 1826-1828, the lands of Azerbaijan were divided between the two empires. It was after the signing of the Turkmenchay Treaty, signed as a result of the Second Russian-Iranian War, that the name "Karabakh" began to be used as a political term.
Based on the policy of "divide and rule", the Russian Empire began to settle non-Muslim peoples in the region, especially Armenians, in order to cut ties between Northern Azerbaijan and other Muslim and Turkish states in the region. This settlement was carried out in accordance with Article 15 of the Treaty of Turkmenchay, signed on February 10, 1828.

Giving land to Armenians in the will of Peter I.

According to the state decree of Peter I (October 10, 1724), was allowed to allocate land for the settlement of Armenians in the lands occupied by Russia. This political line of Peter I was continued by his successors for the next century.  Russia's victory in the Russo-Iranian war of 1804-1813 and the "Gulustan Treaty" that divided Azerbaijan once again resolutely advocated the resettlement and unification of the Armenians. This plan began to be implemented after the capture of Yerevan during the Russo-Iranian war of 1826-1828. Article XV of the Treaty of Turkmenchay, signed on February 10, 1828, provided for the resettlement of Armenians.

The number of Armenians deported from Iran was 40,000-50,000. During and after the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829, 90,000 Armenians were deported from Turkey. The resettlement of Armenians to Russia in Iran, Turkey and other Eastern countries continued throughout the subsequent period.

Statistics released in the Russian Empire show that Azerbaijanis still make up the bulk of the population in the current territory of the Republic of Armenia after Russia's resettlement policy.

Thus, in 1886, out of 326 villages in the Zangazur district of Yelizavetpol province, 149 were Azerbaijani (45.7 percent), 91 were Kurdish (27.9 percent) and only 81 were Armenian (24.8 percent).

 In 1889, the Azerbaijani population of Zangazur district was 1,500 more than the Armenians.

In Iravan province in 1891, out of 661.6 thousand population, 270.4 thousand (41 percent) were Azerbaijanis.

In 1893 this number reached 276 thousand, and in 1897 - 313 thousand. 
In 1897, the population of Zangazur district was 142,000, of which 71.2 thousand (50.1 percent) were Azerbaijanis and 63.6 thousand (46.8 percent) were Armenians.

The ethnic composition of the population at that time is especially noteworthy in the city of Yerevan, now the capital of Armenia, and in the Yerevan district.

In 1896, out of 14,700 people in Yerevan city, 7,200 (49 percent) were Azerbaijanis and 7,100 (48 percent) were Armenians.

Of the 99,000 people in the Yerevan district, 52,800 (53.5 percent) were Azerbaijanis and 36,400 (46.4 percent) were Armenians.

As of January 1, 1916, the ratio between the Azerbaijani and Armenian populations of the region had changed to some extent due to the passage of the Caucasus front through World War I. Nevertheless, Azerbaijanis still made up the bulk of the population in this area.

Azerbaijanis are 74.2 thousand people in Yerevan district (48 percent), 119.5 thousand people in Zangazur district (53.3 percent), 45.9 thousand people in Surmalik district (31.2 percent), 41.3 thousand people in Echmiadzin district (24, 6 percent), and 50.7 thousand people (29.2 percent) in Yeni Bayazid district. "

The "Dashnaktsutyun party", founded in the late 19th century, spread the idea of "Armenianism" aimed primarily at the destruction of the Turkic and Muslim peoples, in order to create a mythical state with baseless claims such as the creation of a "Greater Armenia from sea to sea" or "Greater Armenia from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea." was.
In the realization of this idea, it went through the massacres and terrorist acts committed by Armenians all over the world.

After the establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, the Armenian separatists of Nagorno-Karabakh declared Nagorno-Karabakh "independent" on July 22, 1918.

Armenia did not comment on this. The decision of the separatists remained on paper. The Azerbaijani government was aware of the events in Nagorno-Karabakh, but the government was primarily concerned with the liberation of Baku.

As stated at the meeting of the Azerbaijani Parliament on December 20, 1918, the Armenian government "officially" stated that "we have no business in Karabakh, we do not want Karabakh and we have nothing to do with Andranik."

Until August 15, 1919, Nagorno-Karabakh was de facto part of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. The "Interim Agreement" signed between the Nagorno-Karabakh Armenian Congress and the Azerbaijani government on 15 August legally confirmed that Nagorno-Karabakh was in fact part of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.

During the Soviet era, the USSR leadership directly led Armenia in raising the Nagorno-Karabakh issue. During the formation of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Republic in 1923, historical injustice was committed, the mountainous and lowland parts of Karabakh were artificially separated, favorable conditions were created for the consolidation of the Armenian population, and the demographic position of Azerbaijanis was severely damaged.

In addition, according to the censuses conducted in 1926, 1959, 1970, 1979, the Azerbaijani and Armenian populations of Nagorno-Karabakh were 10.1 and 89.1%; 13.8 and 84.4%; 18.1 and 80.5%;  23.0 and 75.9%.

On December 1, 1920, most of the Zangazur district of Azerbaijan was ceded to Armenia by the decision of the Moscow leadership. As a result of the surrender of the ancient Azerbaijani land of Zangazur to Armenia by the Soviet leadership in 1920, a 44-45 km wide strip extended to the Araz River, separating the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic from the rest of the Republic of Azerbaijan. And thus prevented the unification of the great Turkic states.

Illegal settlement of Armenians in the occupied territories of Azerbaijan by Armenia as a gross violation of the principles of international law:

The Republic of Armenia while ignoring the four UN Security Council Resolutions on unconditional withdrawal of the Armenian armed forces from the occupied territories of Azerbaijan as well as the PACE Resolution 1416 claiming liberation of the Azerbaijani territories and repatriation of displaced Azerbaijanis to their homelands, jeopardizes the process of direct negotiations between the Presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia.
The policy of illegal settlement of Armenians in the occupied territories of Azerbaijan contradicts the norms of international law and the above-mentioned documents as well. Armenia tries to reinforce its “status quo” on the occupied lands of Azerbaijan and to impede the repatriation of the displaced Azerbaijani population by rapidly increasing the number of Armenians settling in these territories.

According to the official figures in 1989, the number of Armenians living in the Mountainous Karabagh, Autonomous Region of Azerbaijan before the conflict was 145.450. In order to increase this number to 300.000 people till 2010 year Yerevan pursues special state policy. According to another data, including Armenian sources, during the latest recent years 23.000 people have been settled in the occupied Mountainous Karabagh region as well as seven other occupied regions including 13.000 people in Lachyn, 700 people in Kalbajar, 520 people in Zangilan, 280 people in Jabrayil.

Before the Armenian invasion the overall population of these regions was Azerbaijanis. Armenia and the Karabakh separatists forced the Azerbaijanis to leave their homes and succeeded in ethnic cleansing in the regions. Hundreds of ethnic Armenian families from Armenia and other countries from all over the world have also been settled in Aghdam, Fizuli and other occupied Azerbaijani territories. According to Yerevan’s state program 15.000 people are to be moved to the occupied city of Shusha of Azerbaijan furthermore.

The Armenia’s policy of illegal settlement of Armenians in the occupied territories of Azerbaijan has been also reflected in the documents of some international organizations (UN Sub-Commission on Promotion and Protection of Human Rights Working Group on Minorities, U.S. Committee for Refugees, World Refugee Survey 2002 Country Report, Armenia, U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, Azerbaijan, 25 February 2004, section 2 (d), Report on the Activities of the Personal Representative of the OSCE Chairman-in-Office on the Conflict Dealt with by the OSCE Minsk Conference, 1 September – 31 October 2004).

At the same time, in the paragraph 6 of article 49 of Geneva Convention has been indicated: “The occupying power shall not deport and transfer of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies”. It means that an illegal deportation and settlement of the population in the ocucupied territories is a gross violation of international law.